Some people turn to alcohol when they are stressed and to relax. At the same time, alcoholic drinks are different in different countries based on cultural traditions, history and climate. Alcoholic drinks or alcoholic drinks are drinks that contain a significant amount of ethanol (informally, alcohol), the effects of which at low doses include euphoria, anxiety reduction, and euphoria, and at high doses include intoxication, stupor, and unconsciousness. Long-term use and abuse of alcohol can lead to physical dependence and alcoholism.
Alcoholism is the abnormal consumption of alcohol that causes damage to the user and others. An alcoholic is someone who consumes a lot of alcohol and his dependence on alcohol has reached such a level that it disrupts his physical and mental health, his relationship with others and his balanced social and economic functioning.
Alcoholic drinks obtained by fermenting barley are considered beer, those obtained by fermenting grapes are wine, and those obtained by fermenting grains and fruits and then distilling them to increase the alcohol content are drinks such as whiskey and vodka. . But these definitions do not include many alcoholic drinks. But these definitions do not include many alcoholic drinks. For example, the World Health Organization has classified cider, which is made by fermenting apples and pears, or sake, which is obtained by distilling rice, under the category of “other” alcoholic drinks. It also classifies fortified wines such as port, which are fortified by double fermentation, among “other” drinks.
Beer is probably the oldest alcoholic drink in the world. There is much conflicting evidence as to exactly when and where the first beer was produced. Some researchers believe that the first beer was produced about six thousand years ago by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia – southern Iraq today).
There are evidences of beer production in China and ancient Egypt dating back to 4000 BC, but most researchers believe that the first reliable document of beer production obtained from the fermentation of barley seeds is related to Godin Tepe, Iran. It goes back about five thousand years ago. Today we know that the production and consumption of beer in Europe goes back to BC. Of course, the early beers in Europe under the name (Mead) were obtained from the fermentation of honey and water, not barley seeds, sometimes spices were also added to them. Regarding the history of wine, the oldest evidence of wine production in Georgia was obtained and dates back to six thousand years ago.
Alcoholic drinks are considered a type of drugs, which are also called neglected addictive substances. The history of alcohol use is longer than that of other drugs. Archaeologists found out from the paintings and signs on the walls of the caves that the people of the Stone Age also used alcoholic drinks. One of the reasons for the widespread use of alcohol in ancient times was due to the lack of clean and unpolluted water and the fact that alcohol was healthier in those days. Of course, at that time, beer was not only for quenching thirst, but because it was rich and nutritious, and it was considered as a complementary food because of its many useful vitamins and amino acids.
Regarding the method of alcohol production and its consumption, some believe that humans themselves cultivated plants that contain sugar and whose fermentation could lead to alcohol production, and they deny the existence of alcohol in a natural form and before its production by humans. Therefore, the form of production has been such that its consumption has expanded rapidly, and this expansion has led to social problems and issues from the very beginning. Undoubtedly, the nomadic and hunter-gatherer man was familiar with the substance that was obtained from natural fermentation and spontaneous sugars in nature, (i.e., alcohol that is the result of old honey or rotten fruits, etc.) and its consumption caused a change in his mood. It can be said with certainty that the first consumers of natural alcohol were prehistoric humans. But what we are considering in the history of alcohol is the date of the beginning of the intentional fermentation of fruits and starchy materials, etc., with the aim of preparing alcoholic drinks by humans. Today we consume alcohol in different ways. Types of alcoholic drinks include fermented alcoholic drinks and distilled alcoholic drinks.